Sunday, 21 April 2013

A typical burner atomizer produces a spray of fuel oil droplets around 100 microns to 200 microns in diameter, depending on fuel quality and atomizer design. Typically, the larger fuel droplets do not completely burn, leaving unburned carbon to collect on heat transfer surfaces and escape as particulate matter in the exhaust gases. This reduces overall thermal efficiency. The flame produced by this combustion radiates heat to the process tubes and refractory walls.



Heavy fuel oil treated with F2-21® will transform into high-tech, high-efficient nanotech fuel oil. Inside the fuel tank, F2-21® builds an exceptionally stable three-dimensional structure consisting of extremely small water based nano-clusters (about 3 to 9 nanometers diameter), all evenly distributed within the fuel. When these nanotech liquid fuels begin to burn in the combustion zone, they rapidly absorb heat and literally explode. The “micro-explosions” created by F2-21® improves atomization.

Based on “micro-explosion theory”, these explosions generate many very significant benefits:
• Larger (and still liquid) fuel droplets are broken down into smaller and more readily vaporized sizes.
• Increased turbulence improves localized mixing of the air/fuel vapor.




The above illustration shows the effect of secondary atomization in a boiler. This process greatly increases the number and surface area of the fuel droplets in the flame zone. Since the combustion of fuel is a surface reaction, the greater the surface area, the less time it takes to burn out the carbon. This results in overall shorter flame length which reduces the possibility of flame impinging on the back wall of the boiler. This shorter flame length most likely creates the condition favorable to reduced fireside fouling. Shorter flame length allows for a radiant "cool down" period prior to impingement on boiler surfaces, and therefore, theoretically, less adherence. Improved atomization creates smaller particle size complexes which in turn improves the radiant cooling capability.

To give you an idea about the surface area available for combustion with nanotech fuel the following example will be interesting to note:
Once in the fuel tank of 100 litres, 10 ml F2-21 (1:10000) would begin to spread and disperse, slowly building a dynamic, continuously changing, three dimensional lattice type structure constructed from trillions of tiny F2-21 nano-clusters. Using the 80 litre fuel tank as an example, F2-21 fuel additive would create a three dimensional lattice structure built from about 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 individual F2-21 nano-clusters.

Collectively, these nano-clusters would have a total surface area of about 4,000 square feet (or 370 square meters). This whole nanotechnology structure would be constructed from using only about10 ml of F2-21.
Another advantage of the secondary atomization produced by F2-21 due to increased turbulence is a reduction in the air required for combustion because of more thorough mixing of the fragmented fuel droplets and combustion air. Reduced excess air reduces the conversion of fuel sulfur to S03.
Reduction in S03 conversion also reduces low temperature corrosion and inhibits the formation of acid mist. Flame length and lower excess air should be the key contributor leading to lower fireside fouling.
Other potential benefits of emulsified fuel are:
  • Elimination of high cost fireside additives.
  • Reduction in nitrogen oxide due to reduced excess air and lower peak flame temperature.   High excess air levels will also result in increased NOx formation because the excess nitrogen and oxygen in the combustion air entering the flame will combine to form thermal NOx.
  • Increase in thermal efficiency and heat rate due to reduced fireside deposits and excess air

H2OIL Corporation is a privately owned company founded in 1990 and located in California's "Silicon Valley.”  H2OIL specializes in combustion research and has developed a liquid nanotechnology fuel additive/enhancer called “F2-21.”

F2-21 can be used in all typical fuels such as gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, bio-fuels, heavy oil, propane, and natural gas.  F2-21 can be introduced into the fuel stream at an oil refinery, at a bulk tank by the fuel distributor, or at a gas station by the general public.

What are the F2-21 Benefits

Vehicles using F2-21 have significantly lower exhaust emissions (up to 50%), increased power (up to 10%), improved fuel economy (up to 15%), cleaner crankcase oil, and the ability to use lower octane fuel (87octane instead of 91). Boilers or furnaces using F2-21 have improved fuel economy (up to 15%), lower emissions (up to 50%), and extended periods between regular maintenance cleaning schedules.

Widespread use of F2-21 could help with at least three serious problems:

     Providing significant economic relief to the general public as well as business (reduced fuel / transportation costs)
•   Reducing urban air pollution (impacting health and the environment)
•   Conserving a limited natural resource (crude oil)

There would also be national strategic and economic benefits from a reduction in the need to import large quantities of crude oil.  Carbon credits could be traded.

How Does F2-21 Work

F2-21 forms a micro-emulsion when mixed with any typical hydrocarbon fuel. The "nano" part of this technology is the ability to control the exact size of the emulsion water droplets.  Water droplets can be highly catalytic to the combustion process, but only within a very narrow "nano" size range.  This catalytic effect significantly enhances combustion throughout the normal burning range as well as extending this range to promote combustion down to relatively low temperatures.

Efficient combustion is critically dependant on the engine’s ability to quickly convert all of the liquid fuel into vapor, and then evenly mix this fuel vapor with
the correct ratio of air.  Any improvement in these two areas will not only increase power but also improve fuel economy.

When treated fuel begins to burn in the combustion chamber, F2-21 water droplets rapidly pick up heat and literally explode (turning water into steam). These "steam explosions" generate two significant benefits:

     Larger (and still liquid) fuel droplets are broken down into smaller and more readily vaporized sizes
•   Increased turbulence improves localized mixing of the fuel / air mixture

All engines show some variability in the "cycle to cycle" power output from each individual cylinder.  This variation can be up to 20% and gives rise to what is known as "cyclic irregularity.”  This inherent irregularity steals power from the engine as the flywheel continually stores and releases energy, trying to mechanically smooth out the engine power.

Cyclic irregularity is caused by inherent variability in the speed of combustion. Some combustion events are slow and some are fast.  F2-21 increases the speed of slow burn cycles by improving fuel / air mixing, eliminating misfires, and encouraging robust combustion immediately after the spark initiates combustion.

How Does F2-21 Improve Fuel Economy

Maximum fuel economy achieved is the sum of several completely different mechanisms:

•   Water droplet micro-explosions improve atomization and fuel / air mixing.
This gives a fuel economy benefit of up to 2%

•   Micro-explosions release airborne nano-catalysts to improve combustion.
This gives an additional benefit of up to 3%

     Engine combustion chamber deposits are gradually removed.  Once clean metal surfaces are exposed, these are catalytically activated.  This gives an additional benefit of up to 4%

     F2-21 regulates combustion by speeding up "slow burn" cycles.  This reduces cyclic irregularity, giving an additional benefit of up to 5%

     Catalytic action extends the fuel / air burn time to much lower temperatures.  This gives an additional benefit of up to 1%

Not all above benefits apply equally to all types of gasoline and diesel engine technologies.  For this reason, individual fuel economy improvements can vary significantly, typically up to 20%.

How does F2-21 Clean Combustion Deposits

When emulsified water "steam explosions" reach the surface of the engine combustion chambers, a very gentle and steady “steam cleaning” action is created; this slowly removes accumulated combustion chamber deposits.

Once combustion deposits are removed, heat transfer through the cooling water jacket improves significantly.  This leads to cooler combustion, reduced NOx emissions, and the ability to use lower octane fuel (87 instead of 91).

Fuels using F2-21 nanotechnology have inherently clean combustion and therefore do not produce unburned products such as abrasive carbon particles, which can contaminate the engine oil.  This means engines operating on fuel treated with F2-21 have cleaner crankcase lubricating oil (allowing extended oil change intervals).

Who can use F2-21

Almost any gas / diesel engine can use F2-21, including 2-stroke, 4-stroke, trucks, automobiles, buses, tractors, locomotives, gas turbines, motorcycles, tugboats, lawn mowers, home heating oil, and stationary power generators.

F2-21 can also be used in steam boilers and furnace employing light / heavy fuel oils and even gaseous fuels such as propane and natural gas.

How is F2-21 Superior to Previous Technology

Conventional fuel additives are based on old and well established petroleum technologies.  These are mature, well understood and fully developed technologies with very little potential for any further significant improvements.

F2-21 uses nanotechnology to achieve cost effective benefits previously thought unattainable from conventional technologies.  The manipulation of matter in the nano size range has now made it possible to exploit properties not possessed by normal matter.

Using nanotechnology, H2OIL is able to manipulate water droplets into the size range where they become highly catalytic.  At the same time, this nano size range enables the creation of huge catalytic surface areas, even when using extremely small volumes.

What Test Results are Available for F2-21

H2OIL has been testing F2-21 for over 20 years and quickly realized that conventional stationary engine testing, such as those typically used to verify claimed additive benefits, was not suitable for testing F2-21 properties.  Only real life, over the road testing will reveal F2-21's true benefits.

Testing sources are quite diverse, including USA, Europe, China, and Japan.

     H2OIL uses emissions test results from both formal and informal sources as well as anecdotal evidence from individual users to build a large data base of results.  There is a huge quantity of such information, so it is now possible to average out the probable effect of using F2-21.  Typical emission reductions are as follows:

Fuel Type

     Fuel economy results are averaged in the same way.  Test results from a number of diverse sources and applications are available on request.

How Easily Could F2-21 be Introduced

F2-21 is registered with the EPA as a "non-baseline" fuel additive for use in gasoline and diesel fuels both bulk and retail.  F2-21 contains only the elements of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur.

The infrastructure is already in place to allow the widespread use of fuel additives.  Oil companies regularly dose many of their own fuel additives directly into the fuel stream.  Fuel distributors also have this ability at their loading racks. Even the general public could purchase retail bottles of F2-21 to dose when refueling at a gas station.


H2OIL truly believes that this is a truly elegant solution to all the problems previously pointed out.  F2-21 is cost effective, easy to use, requires no infrastructure changes and no vehicle or engine modifications of any kind.